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     2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance

2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance

In 2008, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases published a list of pathogens resistant to antibiotics and antivirals: 

  • Staphylococci, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae, tuberculosis
  • Several influenza strains
  • Food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter jejuni
  • Sexually transmitted organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, Candida albicans, and other fungal infections
  • Parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum
  • P aeruginosa and A baumanii (in returning wounded US servicemen from the Middle East and Afghanistan; probably acquired in Europe-based health-care facilities)
  • C difficile

Table of Contents

SECTION ONE: The global threat of AMDR
SECTION TWO: Understanding AMDR
    1. Etiology and Epidemiology
    2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance
    3. Major AMDR Pathogens
       a. Acinetobacter baumanii
       b. Clostridium difficile
       c. Escherichia coli
       d. HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection
       e. Influenza virus
       f. Malaria (Plasmodium)
       g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
       h. Streptococcus pneumoniae
       i. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB
       j. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
SECTION THREE: Control and Prevention of AMDR
    1. Implications of Microbial Resistance
    2. Infections and Chronic Diseases
    3. Policies and Best Practices
       a. Antimicrobial Drug Stewardship
       b. Surveillance
       c. Environmental Decontamination
       d. Infection Control
       e. Patient Education
    4. Antibiotic Development Pipeline
SECTION FOUR: Conclusions
Test Questions
Program Evaluation
Self Assessment

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