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          a. Acinetobacter baumanii

a. Acinetobacter baumannii

A baumanii is an aerobic encapsulated, nonfermenting gram-negative bacterium resistant to most antibiotics. It can be found in the soil and water. There are more than 29 species of Acinetobacter and A baumanii is responsible for more than 80% of infections. Recently A baumanii became a nosocomial infection and the organism has been reported to survive for months on high-touch surfaces such as patients’ beds, clothing, room doorknobs, call buttons, and bathrooms. It has also been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks of septicemia, ventilator-acquired pneumonia, and urinary tract and wound infections. About 20% to 40% of cases are attributed to cross infections by the hands of HCWs (Weber et al. 2010). A baumannii is an opportunistic infection. There have been many reports of A baumannii infections among American soldiers wounded in Iraq, earning it the nickname "Iraqibacter." Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter is not a new phenomenon; it has always been inherently resistant to multiple antibiotics. The illness can cause severe pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, and other body organs (Aquirre-Avalos et al. 2010).


Table of Contents

SECTION ONE: The global threat of AMDR
SECTION TWO: Understanding AMDR
    1. Etiology and Epidemiology
    2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance
    3. Major AMDR Pathogens
       a. Acinetobacter baumanii
       b. Clostridium difficile
       c. Escherichia coli
       d. HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection
       e. Influenza virus
       f. Malaria (Plasmodium)
       g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
       h. Streptococcus pneumoniae
       i. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB
       j. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
SECTION THREE: Control and Prevention of AMDR
    1. Implications of Microbial Resistance
    2. Infections and Chronic Diseases
    3. Policies and Best Practices
       a. Antimicrobial Drug Stewardship
       b. Surveillance
       c. Environmental Decontamination
       d. Infection Control
       e. Patient Education
    4. Antibiotic Development Pipeline
SECTION FOUR: Conclusions
Test Questions
Program Evaluation
Self Assessment

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